进口马到中国 空运和陆运马匹的建议

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Importing Horses to China andRecommendations for Transporting Horses by Land and Air.

作者/Dr Kathrine B Davis

Transport is stressful for horses. Horses are designed with long legs and huge lung capacity to be able to move themselves using their own “horse-power”. However, we put them in trucks, trailers, ships and aeroplanes and move them vast distances whilst the horse stands relatively still. If they were meant to fly they would have been given wings! But, have you considered what is actually happening to the horses’ body when we move him many hundreds or thousands of kilometres?

运输应激对马来说是很大的挑战。马生来就有修长的四肢,巨大的肺活量,能用自己十足的“马力”随意活动。然而,我们却把马放进卡车,运马车,船,飞机( !),把马运到千里之外,这期间马必须静立不动。如果马是为飞翔而生,它们应该是长着翅膀的!你是否想过,在我们把马运到千里之外时,马的身体发生了什么呢?

 

The journey from New Zealand to China demands a horse spend upwards of 13 hours direct (16 hours if via SIN or AUS) hours on a plane. He may leave the Southern Hemisphere in Summer and arrive in the Northern Hemisphere’s mid-Winter. This abrupt temperature and hours of daylight are stressful for the horse to cope with, no wonder some don’t acclimatize well. Same vice versa and probably worse to go from NZ winter to China summer.

把马从新西兰到中国,如果是直飞,马需要在飞机上度过至少13个小时,如果通过新加坡或澳大利亚,需要16个小时。假设马离开新西兰的时候是南半球的夏季,那么到达中国时,正是北半球的正冬。这种极端的温度变化和昼夜长短的改变,马很难适应,应激反应会很大,难怪有的马会水土不服。反之亦然,如果马离开时是新西兰的冬季,到达中国正处于夏季,马的适应情况或许会更糟。

 

To compete at the Chengdu or Wuhan races, horses travel for days, 8 hours or more hours per day in trucks. The owner’s aim is for the horses to arrive at the races in good condition and win. To achieve this it is essential that effective management practices are in place to minimise any risks to the horses welfare and, to minimise the trauma that transport inflicts on the horses body.

要去成都或武汉参加速度赛,马需要经历长途旅行,每天需要在卡车中呆至少8小时。马主的目标是马在到达目的地时,状态良好,能赢得比赛。要实现这个目标,最重要的是能实施有效的管理方案,把影响马的福利和导致马受外伤的风险降到最低。

 

Road Transport

公路运输

 

Horses can be transported more effectively and with lower risk if:

如果能做到以下几点,运输马的效率更高,风险更低:

  • The preparation before transport is well done.

做好运输前准备工作

  • Making sure all horses are strong and in good health.

确保所有的马都强壮健康

  • The horses are handled correctly at all times.

整个过程中,正确的管理、打理、应对马

  • Staff are competent and experienced people, preferably the same people who handle them daily.

选择能干、经验丰富的员工,最好是每天都接触这些马的员工。

  • Horse trailers and horse trucks are designed and maintained for safe transport of horses.

运马车的设计和维护,要以“保护马的运输安全”为出发点。

  • The journey is planned to ensure prompt delivery.

提前计划行程,确保准时到达。

  • Try to arrive in daylight allowing the horses time to settle into their new surroundings.

尽量白天到达目的地,让马有时间适应新环境。

  • Provide appropriate feed, water and shelter during the journey.

运输过程中,为马提供恰当的饲料,水,棚子。

  • Protection from injury during the journey and quarantine horses once they arrive if disease is an issue.

在运输过程,提供保护措施,避免马受伤,如果存在疾病问题,到达目的地后实施隔离检疫。

The risk of injury or the horse becoming sick on a journey is directly related to the experience and competency of the horse handler accompanying the horse and, the preparation of the horses for the journey. Disease and injury risk increase with journey duration, weather conditions, road conditions, truck and horse trailer condition, design of the space allotted to each horse and food and water-deprivation time.

在旅途中,马受伤和生病的风险,直接取决于负责人的经验和能力,以及为马所做的旅途准备。疾病和受伤风险,取决于运输的时间,天气状况,路况,运马车和拖车的状况,每匹马所分配的空间设计,进食和饮水时间的分配。

 

It is also important to observe the horses en-route and take action immediately to remedy any problems. From the horses perspective, the road journey begins a few days before he gets on the truck or trailer and does not end until several days after he arrives in his new temporary home.

在运输途中,保持对马的观察,并且在出现任何问题时能立刻采取措施,这十分重要。从马的角度来讲,旅途始于它踏入运马车或拖车的前几天,并在到达目的地几天后才结束。

 

Let me explain. Preparing the horses large and complicated digestive system for travel is critical. The transport process means that horses are often deprived of feed and water or the normal routine is interrupted. Prevention of colic should be your top priority and preparation of the digestive system needs to begin a few days before transportation. If you are able, carry enough water from home to supply 100% of your horses needs during travel and competition. If not, then train the horse to drink water from a bucket and disguise the taste of the water with a 20 gram (or thereabouts) of molasses and/or 10 to 20 grams of electrolytes in the water. Some horses like sweet and some prefer a little salty. Water from different sources will taste different and disguising the taste with a little molasses or electrolyte will help the horse drink happily throughout the journey.

且听我细细讲解。“让马巨大且复杂的消化系统做好长途旅行的准备”至关重要。运输,意味着马无法经常进食和饮水,或者日常惯例被打破。预防腹痛应该是你的当务之急,因此,“帮助马的消化系统做好准备”需要在出发前几天就开始实施。如果有条件,从原本的马场带足够的,能100%供马在旅途和比赛过程中饮用的水。如果没有条件,那么训练马从水桶中喝水,并在水中添加20克左右的蜜糖或者10-20克左右的电解质以增加水的味道。有些马喜欢甜味,有些马喜欢咸味。水源不同,水的味道也不同。通过蜜糖或电解质增加水的味道能让马在运输过程中快乐的饮水。

 

Make sure the horse has received good nutritional supplementation particularly antioxidants (eg: selenium, Vitamin E) and good quality electrolytes for the weeks before the journey.

在运输前几周,确保马摄入好的营养添加剂,特别是抗氧化剂(例如:硒,维生素E),还有优质的电解质。

 

The best feed during transport is good quality hay, not grain. For the day or two before travel decrease the horses’ grain ration and feed no grain or concentrate feed during the travel time. Hay will provide abundant fibre to help maintain gut peristalsis and maintain hydration status. All good preparation for colic prevention.

运输过程中,最好的饲料不是谷物,而是优质的草料。在出发前的一天或两天,降低马饲料中谷物的比例,在运输期间,饲料中应该完全不含谷物或精饲料。草料能提供丰富的纤维,帮助马维持肠道蠕动,维护水合状态。为预防腹痛,做好充分的准备工作。

Leg Protection

腿部防护

Whether or not you choose to wrap the horses legs in boots or bandages and bell boots depends upon your horse, truck or trailer design and distance travelled. My preference is for heavy felt (matted wool fibre) and leather specially designed travel boots with bell boots. The sets I bought were expensive but have lasted 20 years and hundreds of journeys so I view them as an investment. I have never had a horse injured whilst wearing them. If you are loading a number of horses in a truck then, at the very least, all should be wearing bell boots to protect the feet and easily damaged coronet band.

是否用马蹄鞋(boots)或绷带及护腕(Bell boots)包裹马腿,取决与你的马、运马车或拖车、以及运输的距离。我倾向于用厚重的毛毡和皮革材质的,为运输而特别设计的马蹄鞋(boots)和Bell Boots。我买的那套装备非常贵,它们服役了20多年,经历了上百个旅途,因此我认为购买它们是一种投资。我的马在穿着它们期间,从来没有受伤过。如果你的运马车上运载了几匹马,那么最起码,所有的马都应该穿护腕bell boots,保护它们的马蹄和容易受伤的蹄冠线(Coronet band)。

 

Above all, people responsible for the care and management of horses at all stages of the transport process are aware of and are accountable for their responsibilities.

There should be a written record of the following:

首先,人们要清楚的认识到自己在运输马的整个过程中,对所有马的护理和管理责任,并且能承担责任。

下列事宜应该有书面记录:

  1. The time that the horses last had access to water; and

马最近一次饮水的时间记录

  1. ii)  the time they last stopped and inspected the horses and any welfare concerns;

and

员工最近一次停车,检查马和马的福利相关事项的时间记录。

iii)  emergency contacts, mobile phone numbers for veterinarians and people responsible for the horses at the departure and destination locations.

紧急联络人,兽医的手机号码,出发地和目的地的负责马的联系人的电话。

 

Horses and Flight

马和空运

 

For humans, it seems a fairly simple process to take a plane trip, with the most complicated involving transportation to the airport or the wait in endless security lines. But what must transpire to get a horse aboard a jet and fly him thousands of miles to China? The details of equine air transport rely on arrangements made by the shipping agent and how flights are contracted.

乘坐飞机的程序对人来说似乎相当简单,最复杂的部分不过是到机场的交通和在安检处无止境的等待。然而,让马登上飞机,飞越万水千山到达中国,有哪些必要程序?空运马的众多细节取决于运输代理的安排,以及航班是如何被签约的。

 

The Details

细节

A horse owner wishing to ship a horse overseas should contact a specialist company. The agent advises the owner of the export requirements and services he/she can provide. Normally a pre-export isolation period (which can be 30 days), so an exporter should factor that into the plans and securing a Chinese import permit is essential. Since economy is achieved by shipping in groups, a horse owner might find it better to wait until a group shipment becomes available.

假设一位马主希望从海外运马,应该联系一家专业公司。代理会告知马主关于出口的要求和自己能提供的服务。通常情况下会有一个出口前隔离期(有可能是30天),那么出口人需要将该因素纳入计划中,此外,持有中国的入口许可也至关重要。通常运输数量大,则价格更经济实惠,马主或许会发现,等待有一群马能被批量运输时,费用会更实惠。

 

Paying attention to details relieves some of the stress on horses during air transport. The details of care begin in the weeks and days preceding a horse’s departure from the home farm. You will need a detailed outline of all health requirements for China, including necessary vaccinations and blood tests to screen for equine diseases, along with a timetable for these procedures. Export companies can advise all this and best practice guidelines.

在空运马的过程中关注细节,能缓解马的应激反应。在马离开马场登机前几周,就开始实施护理细节。你将需要“到达中国的马的健康要求”的细节大纲,包括:必要的预防接种,关于马病的血液检测;相关程序的时间表。出口公司能为上述事宜提出建议并提供最佳操作指南。

 

Pre-Flight Quarantine

空运前检疫

 

The actual journey starts with the horse being shipped by truck from its home to the quarantine farm for 30 days, that is if the testing all goes well. After release from quarantine the horses are trucked to the holding area at the airport, where they are quarantined prior to being loaded in the shipping crate. All the export documents are checked at the airport including health certificates. They also have “on-farm” testing before going to PEQ

空运马,实际上开始于马登上运马车离开自己的马场,到检疫马场住30天,这是在假设所有检测结果都好的前提下。从检疫马场出来后,马被运到机场的等待区,在那里被载入装载箱中。所有的出口文件,包括健康证明都在机场检查。它们去PEQ(Post Entry Quarantine入境检疫)前,它们还有“on-farm”(在马场)测试。

 

Loading the Plane

装载入飞机

From the quarantine area, the horse is transported by truck to the airport or aircraft and loaded into the air container (like a packing crate) and onto the aircraft. Each crate holds 3 horses and the horse stays in this crate for the entire journey.

The flight time from Auckland to Shanghai takes only No direct flight currently so approx. 16 hours, but the entire journey from leaving the home farm to arriving at the final quarantine station in China can take over 22-24 hours. So, one must consider feed and hydration status through this lengthy period and also the stress incurred by every horse. In each 3 horse container, it helps to stand horses next to compatible companions to limit bickering, and so that each horse has another horse to rely on for emotional security. A well-traveled horse is a good role model for the uninitiated. Hay, water and supplements (like boost paste) are given to the horses in transit by grooms (again best practise guidelines)

从检疫区,马被卡车运到机场,装入空运集装箱,装入飞机。每个集装箱能装3匹马,马在整个旅程中都呆在该集装箱。

从奥克兰到上海目前没有直飞航班,因此航程需要16个小时左右。然而,从离开马所在的马场至到达中国的最终检疫站需要22-24小时。因此,在这个漫长的旅途中,运马的人需要考虑马的饲料和水合状态以及每匹马的应激反应。在每个装有3匹马的集装箱,把互为同伴的马放在一起会有助于减少争执,这样每匹马都有另外一匹马可依靠,在情感上有安全感。一匹运输经验丰富的马对没有经验的马来说是一个好的模范。中转过程中,(最佳实践指南)马工会给马提供草料,水,添加剂(如boost paste)。

 

Because horses flown in airplanes are confined in tight quarters for a lengthy time, any horse undergoing this experience should be well acclimated to a stable environment. It is asking for disaster to take a horse from a 10 acre grassy paddock in New Zealand and put him on a plane. Realistically only if they are very inexperienced – well travelled horses can sometimes be worse.  Managing the transition is important and will ensure the horse has a good travel experience.  Also, they should be able to stand quietly next to other horses without feeling claustrophobic or displaying aggressive behavior. Flying young Colts are ok – serving stallions are the difficult ones. thoroughbred stallions together is perhaps the most difficult group to manage. Expert preparation at the home farm ensuring they are comfortable whilst close together in confined stables is essential. Without it the horses will likely “fall apart” on the journey and not be able to cope with the transition. Certainly mating horses up in groups of three does help before the flight for fillies.

在漫长的旅途中,由于马在飞机中被困在狭小的空间,任何能“承受”这种经历的马应该都是能很好适应马厩环境的马。如果一匹马只习惯于生活在新西兰牧草丰富的放牧场,把它放到飞机上,无异于制造灾难。当然从现实角度来说,除非是马非常没有经验——然而有时候,有些运输经验丰富的马可能更糟。妥善管理过渡期很重要,能确保马有一个好的运输经历。同时,马需要能安静的站在另一匹马旁边而不会出现幽闭恐惧症或者表现出攻击性行为。运输小公马还好-正在配种的种公马运输起来很困难。一群纯血种公马或许是最难运输的。专业人士在原马场的准备工作能确保它们能一起舒适的呆在狭小的马厩,这至关重要。没有这个步骤,马不能适应这一过渡期,马群在运输中“支离破碎”的可能性更大。如果是空运小母马,在空运前,把小母马“配对”成3匹一组,这会是一件很有帮助的事。

 

It is critical when a horse is moved from a shipping van into an air container that he is well handled, will load easily into a trailer-sized stall, and that he is willing to go backwards straight into a narrow space.

把马从运马车移到空运集装箱过程中,马被良好的管理,愿意很轻松的进入一个拖车大小的马厩,愿意倒退着笔直的进入一个狭小的空间,这些都很重要。

 

Shipping Container Logistics

物流运输集装箱

The shipping containers resemble horse trailers without a hitch or wheels, and each can hold three horses in side-by-side single stalls (economy class) or two horses in double stalls (business class) The containers are enclosed so it can get hot in the containers in the cargo bay. Consequently, leg wraps and horse blankets are a bad idea since leg bandages hold in heat and might get wet with sweat or splattered urine. Travel boots or bandages on the rear limbs are risky because if they fall down, it can be very difficult to reach that area to remove them. In the containers there is very little extra room for a person to move alongside. However, if leg protection is still a goal, well-designed boots can be a good alternative, and I believe bell boots might be the single most useful piece of leg protection. The horse’s travel halter should be light and comfortable, as it will remain on him for the duration of the trip.

集装箱就好比是没有挂钩和轮子的拖车, 一种集装箱能并排装载三匹马(经济舱),还有一种是装载两匹马的(商务车)。集装箱是封闭的,因此在货仓的集装箱内部的温度可能会变热。从这个角度看,在腿部包绷带,让马穿马衣,都不是好想法,因此它们不利于温度的散发,或许会因为马流汗或尿液而变得潮湿。给马的后腿穿Travel boots(马的运输鞋)和绑绷带会有风险,因为假如鞋和绷带脱落了,马工够不到那个角落,很难将其移除。集装箱里几乎没有供人移动的额外空间。然而,如果马主仍然希望保护马腿,选择“设计优良的马鞋”是一个折中方案,我相信,bell boots或许是最有用的,保护马腿的工具。运输期间马全程需要带马笼头,因此所用的马笼头应该选择质量轻且舒适的。

 

The pilot will attempt to keep the cargo bay at a constant temperature around 17°C, although sometimes this temperature is kept colder at 10-12°C, depending on the cargo, the plane, and the pilot. Optimal temperature between 7-12° (C) helps reduce bacteria proliferation and other health risks from developing quickly in the horses’ environment and lessens the chance that the horses will become overheated. Three horses in an aluminum box produce a fair bit of heat.

货仓的温度应该是维持在17摄氏度的恒温状态,然而有时候,货仓温度会较低:10-12摄氏度,取决于货仓、飞机、和飞行员的决定。最适宜的温度是在7至12摄氏度之间,这个温度能降低细菌的增殖,降低别的健康风险,降低马体温过热的可能性,因为在集装箱中三匹马会聚集一定的热度。

 

Shipping fever (pleuropneumonia) is the most common problem experienced by flying horses and anything we can do to help reduce the chances of this deadly condition is implemented. We have now discovered allowing horses to get their heads down to mimic natural grazing behaviour and allow their lungs to drain down the trachea is the best shipping fever prevention remedy.

空运马里最常见的问题就是运输热(shipping fever -胸膜肺炎pleuropneumonia ),我们必须实施任何我们能做的工作,降低这种致命状况的发生几率。研究发现,让马能低头,模拟它们的自然吃草行为,让肺部黏液能流入气管,这是预防运输热的最佳措施。

 

Trouble Spots

难点

The biggest emotional and physical concern for flying horses centers upon just a few events:

空运马中存在的最大的心理和生理困难集中在以下几点:

 

1) The jostling of the containers as they are lifted from the tarmac into the belly of the plane, then slid along the floor of the plane on rollers to be locked into the designated spot, and when unloaded similarly at the arrival end. This container movement and bouncing is probably the scariest part of the journey for the horses, and each handles it differently.

  1. 集装箱的搬运碰撞:

运输人员把集装箱从停机坪搬运到飞机内部货仓,用滚轮式搬运车拖动集装箱,将其运到设计好的位置,飞机到达目的地后,重复该程序。移动集装箱的过程以及该过程中发生的碰撞或许是整个运输过程中最让马感到害怕的时候,每匹马对该状况的反应都有所不同。

 

2) The take-offs and landings. In a cargo plane, the take-offs and landings are relatively benign since a cargo jet is so weighted down it must leave the ground and head back to earth at a far gentler incline than what we experience on a passenger jet. A careful pilot will put the plane down and brake so gently that the horses will hardly know they’ve been up or down in the air. While en route in the sky, there is little muscular effort to balance unless the plane enters turbulent air. The small container provides the horses with sufficient room to stamp and move, but also gives them something to lean on in the event of rapid acceleration or deceleration.

  1. 起飞和降落

货运飞机的起飞和降落相对温和,由于货运飞机非常重,飞机在离地和着陆的时候角度相对温和,和我们所乘坐的客机不同。谨慎的飞行员在降落时非常轻柔,马几乎不会察觉它们已经经历了起飞和降落。飞行途中,继续不需要任何运用任何肌肉力量保持平衡,除非飞机进入空气激流。小集装箱为马提供了足够的空间站立和移动,同时也在飞机加速和减速时让马可以依靠着。

 

3) Unexpected dangerous cargo. Although very unlikely when flying from New Zealand to China, there is the possibility that someone else is shipping something that may upset your equine cargo. I heard of a shipment of horses from the US to the Middle East who had the misfortune to be scheduled on the same cargo flight as 3 tigers! The shipment went ahead and all was well but I can imagine if the horses caught the scent of large carnivorous tigers they would have been very upset.

  1. 意外的危险物

尽管可能性非常小,从新西兰到中国的运输途中,一同运输的货物中有可能存在导致马沮丧的货物。我曾听说,在一架从美国到中东的飞机中,有马主不幸遇到货仓同时也运输了三只老虎的情况!幸好这次行程顺利完成了,但是我能想像,如果马闻到了大型食肉动物老虎的气味,它们必然会倍感沮丧的。

 

Professional grooms and veterinarians always accompany a shipment of horses, and it is these capable people who assist in loading and unloading the horses, who offer water and food en route, and in general look after the well-being of the horses during the journey. Usually one groom per container, or group of three horses and with larger shipments you need at least four competent individuals on board to deal with emergencies.

运输马的过程中,专业马工和兽医全程陪同,这些专业人士协助装载和卸载马,在运输途中给马提供食物和水,为马的福利提供基础看护。通常每个集装箱,或每三匹马会配备一名马工,如果运输数量大,那么飞机上至少需要4名得力人员应对突发紧急状况。

 

As for on-board crises, they are very rare due to good equine preparation, experienced staff and professional airline management.

由于对马的准备非常充分,员工经验丰富,飞行管理实践专业,飞机上出现危机的情况非常少。

Grooms have relatively free access to the horses on strictly cargo aircraft, while on the combi-planes (carrying part cargo, part human passengers), they must be given permission and are accompanied by airline personnel to enter the cargo hold.

在货运飞机上,马工能自由的接触马;然而在组合式飞机上(一部分是货仓一部分是乘客),马工必须获得许可,并在机组人员的陪同下进入货仓。

If personnel are allowed in the cargo hold during take-off and landing, the grooms can offer carrots or peppermints to reassure the horses during these periods.

在起飞和降落时,如果机组人员同意,马工可以给马吃胡萝卜或薄荷糖。

What and How to Feed for Airplane Journeys

空运过程中,可以给马吃什么,如何喂马

A little more preparation is required than for road journeys, it’s a good idea to withhold grain several days prior to flying. Grain is a highly fermentable feed that can create gas build-up in the bowel, with the potential for gas colic. Anti-ulcer medications, when appropriate, should be started the day before transit, then given daily while en route. Excellent quality hay should be provided in a hay bag, and extra hay can accompany your horse with a simple request to the shipper. One doesn’t want to suddenly change feeds, so make sure they have hay from home adequate for the journey. It is a good idea to feed the same grain mix at their destination that they were used to at home and in the quarantine stables to minimise digestive disturbance which can be caused by sudden feed changes. Try to provide the least-dusty hay possible to reduce damage to your horse’s respiratory tract and immune system.

相对来说,空运所需的准备工作比陆运多,最好起飞前几天就不给马吃谷物。谷物是容易发酵的食物,可能产生气体并聚集在肠道中,因此存在导致胀气腹痛的可能。在合适的情况下,抗溃疡药物,应该在运输前一天开始给马吃,并在运输过程中每天给马吃。应该给通过草料兜给马提供极其优质的草料,并给马吃额外的草料。任何马都不喜欢饲料突然被改变,因此确保它们出发时就从它们的马场带足够运输期间食用的草料。在它们到达目的地后,最好给马提供同样的,它们在原来的马场以及隔离检疫马场每天所吃的谷物混合饲料,以尽可能降低消化道紊乱的风险,因为饲料突然被改变极容易导致消化道紊乱的发生。尽最避免给马吃灰尘大的草料,以降低对马消化道和免疫系统的损害。

Hydration is key to safe long-distance travel. Training your horse to drink happily from a bucket with the molasses and/or electrolytes in the water can improve water intake during flights. While on board, water is offered by the grooms as often as possible, although there might be limited amounts until the supply is replenished at connecting points en route.

长途运输过程中,水是关键。训练你的马能愉快的从水桶中饮用带甜味(蜜糖)/咸味(电解质)的水,这能让马在运输途中增加饮水量。在飞机上,马工会尽可能多的给马提供水,然而在中转站增加补给前,所能提供的水量可能有限。

Light exercise or hand walking in the days preceding travel keeps muscle tissues loose and blood flowing to minimize the incidence of tying-up syndrome. Ensuring the horses have all received nutritional supplements for the month before flying of important antioxidants ( eg selenium and Vitamin E) will also help protect the muscles whilst journeying.

运输前做准备的那几天中,让马少量运动量或走动,这能让马的肌肉组织松弛,血液流动,从而把呆立症候群(tying-up)发生的可能降到最低。在出发前的那个月,确保马摄入所需要的抗氧化营养补充剂(例如硒和维生素E),也能在运输途中帮组保护马的肌肉。

Once your horse has arrived at his destination, he will undergo some of the same jet lag and changes in diurnal (daily) rhythms.

So, the more you can do in advance to minimize the stress of travel and to maintain his food and water intake, the less likely the journey will have adverse effects on his performance.

一旦你的马到达目的地,它将会经历时差和昼夜变化。因此,你提前做的准备越多,就越能降低运输应激,如果能维持马的进食量、引水量,那么旅途对马的运动能力的影响就会越小。

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